Department of Geography & Geographic Information Science

Shaowen Wang, Department Head
2042 Natural History Building
1301 W. Green Street
Urbana, IL 6180
PH: (217) 333-1880

department website:

department faculty: Geography & GIS Faculty

college catalog page: Liberal Arts & Sciences

college website:

The Department of Geography & Geographic Information Science offers a Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts& Sciences (BALAS) in Geography & Geographic Information Science with four concentrations:

General Geography Concentration
Geography majors integrate social science, physical science, and technology in their study of how humans use the Earth’s surface. Majors in Geography & GIS can sample courses from different subfields of geography without having to choose one specialty of the discipline. Upon completion, the students are prepared for diverse employment opportunities, or further studies in a geography graduate program.

Geographic Information Science (GIS) Concentration
The GIS concentration emphasizes the creation, use and analysis of digital geographic information to examine economic, environmental, physical and social phenomena. The GIS concentration provides students with in-depth training in contemporary software packages to prepare them for careers in the field. There is growing demand for professional knowledge of the earth's systems and the use of geographic information systems to enhance business, protect the environment and manage the massive amounts of spatial data now widely available on the internet. The U.S. Department of Labor has identified geospatial technologies as one of the fastest-growing domestic job sectors.

Human Geography Concentration
The Human Geography concentration allows students to specialize in the social science aspect of modern geography. The curriculum includes the systematic study of human social organization and its environmental consequences. Employment opportunities for human geographers include urban and regional planning, transportation, marketing, real estate, tourism, and international business.

Physical Geography Concentration
The Physical Geography concentration examines the earth sciences including patterns of climates, land-forms, vegetation, soils, and water. Graduates of our physical geography concentration will be equipped for careers in infrastructure development, land and water resources management, and surveying.

The department also offers a minor in Geography & GIS that exposes students to a comprehensive selection of courses embracing our three broad areas of study: human geography, physical/environmental geography, and geographic information science.

Undergraduate Programs:

major: Geography & Geographic Information Science, BALAS or BSLAS

concentration: General Geography, BALAS

concentration: Geographic Information Science, BSLAS

concentration: Human Geography, BALAS

concentration: Physical Geography, BSLAS

minor: Minor in Geography & Geographic Information Science

Graduate Programs:

degree: Geography, MA or Geography, MS

degree: Geographic Information Science: Professional Science Master's, MS

degree: Geography, PhD

Graduate Degree Programs

The Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science offers programs leading to the Master of Arts, Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Geography. The department's specializations are organized into four programs:

  1. Cities and Metropolitan Areas (urban health and quality of life, urban governance and politics, race, class, and city policing, critical studies of urban transportation and mobilities, globalization, neoliberalization and the city);
  2. Geographic Information Science (geographic information systems, dynamic modeling of ecological and social systems, geocomputation and cyber GIS, aerial photogrammetry, remote sensing, interregional input-output modeling, regional science and spatial analysis);
  3. River, Watershed and Landscape Dynamics (fluvial geomorphology, watershed science and management, and ecosystem dynamics);
  4. Society, Space and Environments (political ecology, environmental policy and social vulnerability, urban analysis, health geography and geopolitical analysis).


Students applying for admission to the master's program are expected to have a strong undergraduate background in geography and/or related disciplines. In addition to other Graduate College admission requirements, a grade point average of at least 3.0 (A = 4.0) in the undergraduate major is required. Ph.D. candidates are generally expected to have at least a 3.5 average in previous graduate work.

Graduate Teaching Experience

Although teaching is not a general Graduate College requirement, experience in teaching is considered an important part of the graduate experience in this program. We have implemented a professionalization program in our department, where graduate students work with faculty members to receive advice and gain first-hand experience in teaching undergraduate courses. Several graduate students have also been provided an opportunity to teach introductory undergraduate courses over the last few years.

Facilities and Resources

The department also includes several state-of-the-art research laboratories maintained by individual faculty members. The CyberInfrastructure and Geospatial Information Laboratory (CIGI), housed in the department, researches and develops cutting-edge cyberinfrastructure to advance goepatial sciences and technologies. The department is also a sponsor of  the CyberGIS Center for Advanced Digital and Spatial Studies whose mission is to empower advanced digital and spatial studies through innovation of CyberGIS technologies and applications. The laboratory houses several high performance computers and servers for performing computationally intensive geographic analysis and problem solving in various research, education, and outreach contexts. The Global Environmental Analysis and Remote Sensing (GEARS) Laboratory examines the impacts of climate change and land use/land cover change on vegetated ecosystems using remote sensing data. The Regional Economics Applications Laboratory focuses on the development of models of urban and regional economies for impact analysis and economic forecasting. The department is a participant in the Social Dimensions of Environmental Policy (SDEP) strategic initiative, which aims to understand the social and political-economic forces shaping just and sustainable environmental policy. The soil laboratory has a wide array of equipment for physical and chemical analysis of earth materials.

Map and Geography Library

The University Library has a substantial collection of geography books and journals. Most of the new and more recent books are located in the Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library (SSHEL); nearly all geography journals are available full-text through the University Library’s website. The Map Library holds a collection of over 626,000 maps and aerial photographs. Additionally, the Map Library houses an extensive collection of books on cartography and geographic information science. The Map Library also has a small collection of geospatial data on CD-ROM, and assistance in locating geospatial data can be obtained in either the Map Library or the University Library’s Scholarly Commons.

Medical Scholars Program

Applications are not currently being accepted.

The Medical Scholars Program permits highly qualified students to integrate the study of medicine with study for a graduate degree in a second discipline, including Geography. Students may apply to the Medical Scholars Program prior to beginning graduate school or while in the graduate program. Applicants to the Medical Scholars Program must meet the admissions standards for and be accepted into both the doctoral graduate program and the College of Medicine. Students in the dual degree program must meet the specific requirements for both the medical and graduate degrees. On average, students take eight years to complete both degrees. Further information on this program is available by contacting the Medical Scholars Program, 125 Medical Sciences Building, (217) 333-8146 or at

Financial Aid

Fellowships, teaching and research assistantships, and waivers of tuition and some fees are available in the department for  MA/MS and Ph.D. students.

GEOG Class Schedule


GEOG 100   Introduction to Meteorology   credit: 3 Hours.

Same as ATMS 100. See ATMS 100.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Nat Sci & Tech - Phys Sciences

GEOG 101   Global Development&Environment   credit: 3 Hours.

Introduces geographical perspectives on environment and development studies with case studies drawn from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Investigates the origins of the global South in relation to the global North, especially the historical and contemporary processes driving environmental, economic, and cultural change.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Cultural Studies - Non-West
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 103   Earth's Physical Systems   credit: 4 Hours.

A basic introduction to the environmental systems of the Earth's surface, including landforms, soils, and ecosystems and how these systems are affected by global change. Emphasizes the importance of human-Earth relations and a holistic view of environmental systems. Same as ESE 103.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Nat Sci & Tech - Phys Sciences

GEOG 104   Social and Cultural Geography   credit: 4 Hours.

Introduces the basic concepts of social and cultural geography, and the application of these concepts to a variety of topics; mental maps, territoriality, cultural regions, cultural elements and their diffusion, population movement and migration, settlement patterns, environmental hazards, and spatial patterns of social problems.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 105   The Digital Earth   credit: 3 Hours.

Geospatial technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are becoming increasingly important tools in research and policy arenas and in everyday life. This course will provide an introduction to these emerging technologies and to the principles of mapping science that underpin them. At the same time, the course will explore how these innovative technologies are changing the spaces and places around us, including how we interact with the environment and each other. Lab exercises provide hands-on experience in collecting and mapping geospatial information, interpreting digital imagery and the Earth's environments, and critically thinking about the social implications of the digital Earth.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 106   Geographies of Globalization   credit: 3 Hours.

A survey of major world regions by systematically considering five themes: environment, population and settlement patterns, cultural coherence and diversity, geopolitical fragmentation and unity, and economic and social development. While examining the persistence of unique regions, the course will both scale up to global linkages and scale down to place-specific impacts of globalization processes. Same as ESE 106.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Cultural Studies - Non-West
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 204   Cities of the World   credit: 3 Hours.

In-depth exploration of global urbanization. Using a comparative regional approach, discuss the recent history of global urbanization, dissect its problems, and offer possible solutions. Approximately ten major regions of the world will be examined, exploring the significant urban patterns and processes, built and natural environments, and social, economic, and cultural landscapes of each.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci
Cultural Studies - Western

GEOG 205   Business Location Decisions   credit: 3 Hours.

Analyzes location decision-making emphasizing industrial and commercial location patterns; identifies important institutional factors and their changing roles over the recent past; and focuses on plant closings, economic disruptions, and problems of structural change. Same as BADM 205. Prerequisite: ECON 102 or ECON 103, or equivalent.

GEOG 210   Social & Environmental Issues   credit: 3 Hours.

Introduction to the complex relationship between people and the natural environment from a social science perspective. Explores different approaches to environmental issues, and examines the role of population change, political economy, technologies, environmental policymaking, and social institutions in causing and resolving contemporary social and environmental global issues. Same as ESE 210.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 221   Geographies of Global Conflict   credit: 3 Hours.

Focuses on contemporary cultural conflicts, competition among nations for economic and mineral resources; treats territorial disputes from a cultural and geographic perspective. Case studies vary to illustrate types of contemporary conflicts. Same as GLBL 221. Credit is not given for GEOG 221 and GEOG 110.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 222   Big Rivers of the World   credit: 3 Hours.

An interdisciplinary approach to the study of big rivers, encompassing geomorphology, engineering, ecology, risk assessment and planning. Commencing with an assessment of the nature of big rivers; their hydrology and geomorphic setting; hazards associated with large rivers, and issues of river impoundment and management, then proceed to examine the geography, geomorphology, and ecology and management of a range of the World's greatest rivers, focusing on how a geomorphological understanding of such large rivers can aid study of riverine ecohabitats and inform decisions regarding water usage and engineering management. If the weather permits, a one day field-trip will be organized in the second half of the course to view aspects of a local river in Illinois/Indiana. Same as ESE 222.

GEOG 224   Geog Patterns of Illinois   credit: 3 Hours.

Systematic analysis of the environmental and human processes that have shaped the regional landscapes of rural and urban Illinois.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci

GEOG 254   American People, Places, & Environments   credit: 3 Hours.

Students will broaden their understanding of how the United States' physical and human geography interact to produce unique American landscapes. Covers a dozen different regions of the U.S., exploring the significant spatial patterns and processes, built and natural environments, and social, economic, and cultural landscapes of each. Focuses on the experiences of minority cultures in the U.S. through the concept of environmental justice in order to understand how environmental and social inequality are closely connected in ways that differ from region to region. Same as ESE 254.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci
Cultural Studies - US Minority

GEOG 280   Intro to Social Statistics   credit: 4 Hours.

Same as SOC 280. See SOC 280.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Quantitative Reasoning I

GEOG 287   Environment and Society   credit: 3 Hours.

Same as ESE 287, NRES 287 and PS 273. See NRES 287.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Social & Beh Sci - Soc Sci
Cultural Studies - Western

GEOG 350   Sustainability and the City   credit: 3 Hours.

Examination of the tools, techniques, strategies, and rationales that can be used by urbanists to produce and sustain a productive, fair, and equitable city. Emphasis is placed on diagnosing, implementing, and sustaining an ideal U.S. city as a complex whole that embeds an array of interconnecting parts (neighborhoods, retail districts, downtowns, city economies). Lectures and discussion cover the broad background of theories, concepts, and principles that will be essential for imagining and implementing these ideals, strategies and plans.) Same as ESE 350.

GEOG 356   Sustainable Development in South Asia   credit: 3 Hours.

Examination of sustainable development in the region of South Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka). Geographic analysis of development processes since the colonial period, with particular emphasis on the interrelated processes of environment, society, and politics as related to sustainability. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or consent of instructor.

GEOG 371   Spatial Analysis   credit: 4 Hours.

Overview of the spatial analysis (nomothetic) approach to geographic research, both physical and human; includes discussion of the scientific method, with explanations and uses of analytic geographic concepts in studying real world problems. Prerequisite: A course in geography.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Quantitative Reasoning II

GEOG 379   Intro to GIS Systems   credit: 4 Hours.

Investigates the fundamentals of geographic information science as well as the basic skills in the execution of that theoretical knowledge with industry standard software packages. Student will learn the basics of projections and coordinate systems, how geographic information is stored and manipulated, and the theory and practice behind the production of thematic maps. Includes lecture and hands-on laboratory components. Same as ESE 379.

GEOG 380   GIS II: Spatial Prob Solving   credit: 4 Hours.

Study of the analytical capabilities of geographic information systems with an emphasis on learning to solve spatial problems in both the vector and raster data formats. Students will develop the skills necessary to answer questions or solve problems in their areas of interest, with particular emphasis on problems and questions that require multiple steps to resolve. Students will learn the fundamental theory behind spatial problem solving, but also learn to execute these procedures with industry-standard software packages. Thus, this class contains both lecture/discussion elements and hands-on laboratory work. Same as ESE 380. Prerequisite: GEOG 379
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Quantitative Reasoning II

GEOG 384   Population Geography   credit: 3 Hours.

Problems and issues surrounding the geographic distribution of populations at the world, regional, and local levels; emphasizes problems associated with population growth and decline, recent population redistribution, births and deaths, and elderly and minority populations.

GEOG 390   Individual Study   credit: 2 to 4 Hours.

Supervised independent study of special topics or regions. May be repeated once. Prerequisite: Junior standing; at least one formal course in the topic or region of interest; consent of instructor.

GEOG 391   Honors Individual Study   credit: 2 to 4 Hours.

Individual study and research projects for students who are working toward the degree with distinction in geography. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 hours. Prerequisite: Junior standing; consent of honors adviser.

GEOG 392   Geography & GIS Internship   credit: 0 to 3 Hours.

Supervised, off-campus experience in a field directly pertaining to Geography and/or GIS. A written report is required at the end of the internship relating work accomplishments to the student's program of study. Approved for Letter and S/U grading. May be repeated in separate terms up to 6 hours. Prerequisite: Consent of faculty sponsor and Director of Undergraduate Studies; at least two courses taken within Geography & GIS.

GEOG 405   Geography Field Course   credit: 1 to 4 Hours.

Field observation and mapping of human and/or physical phenomena using basic geographic field techniques, including pre- and post-trip meetings. Required field trip. Additional fees may apply. See Class Schedule. 1 to 4 undergraduate hours. 1 to 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite: Major or minor in Geography & GIS, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 406   Fluvial Geomorphology   credit: 4 Hours.

Systematic overview of the forms and processes associated with rivers and drainage basins; topics include basin hydrology, drainage networks, river hydraulics, sediment transport processes, channel morphology, channel change, and human impacts on fluvial systems. Same as GEOL 406, and NRES 406. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: PHYS 101, and GEOG 103 or GEOL 107, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 408   Humans and River Systems   credit: 4 Hours.

Systematic analysis of the biophysical processes operating in rivers and watersheds and the interaction of humans on these processes. The course will emphasize the importance of biophysical processes and human interaction with these processes in river and watershed management. Class discussion and a class project will focus on analysis of practical river and watershed problems. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 103 or an introductory course in earth or environmental science.

GEOG 410   Green Development   credit: 4 Hours.

Theory and practice of sustainable development. Course materials draw upon theoretical and case study material from the social and natural sciences to analyze environment and development relations with emphasis on the Global South. Same as ESE 410. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 412   Geospatial Tech & Society   credit: 3 Hours.

Examines the use of geographic information systems (GIS), geographical positioning systems (GPS), and other geospatial technologies in everyday life with emphasis on their implications for social, economic, and environmental change. Topics include critical cartography, GIS, and social theory, crime and health, environmental justice, feminism, economic development and environmental change. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 105 or consent of instructor.

GEOG 438   Geography of Health Care   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Methods and perspectives of health care. Emphasizing the spatial analysis of health and health care. The organization, provision and competition of health care will be highlighted. Same as SOC 478. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 384 or SOC 274 or consent of instructor.

GEOG 440   Business Applications of GIS   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Design and implementation of GIS for business and strategic planning applications. Course goals include: (1) provide students with an understanding of Geographic Information Systems; (2) provide students with an understanding of how GIS can be applied in various business applications; (3) familiarize students with GIS and modeling techniques; (4) provide students with opportunities to work with various data sources through a project related to their own interest in business. Same as BADM 440. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 455   Geog of Sub-Saharn Africa   credit: 3 Hours.

Regional geography of Africa south of the Sahara. Geographic analysis of Africa which includes topics in both physical and human geography and provides a general overview of the processes and interactions between human and environmental factors that shape Africa's physical and human geography. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours.

GEOG 459   Ecohydraulics   credit: 4 Hours.

Interactions between hydraulic, ecological, and geomorphic processes in river environments at a wide range of both spatial and temporal scales. Draws upon and synthetize fundamental concepts from biology, ecology, fluid mechanics and morphodynamics, to apply them to truly interdisciplinary problems. Such an approach, coupled with hands-on experience involving planning, conducting and analyzing hands-on experiments at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory and field surveys on local natural waters will provide the students with a broad perspective on the interconnections between physical and ecological systems. Students will apply their knowledge of fundamental processes to assess complex problems involving monitoring, management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 460   Aerial Photo Analysis   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Review of methods for extracting quantitative and qualitative information from aerial photographs using computer-based techniques and visual interpretation. The first part of the course will cover basic photogrammetry and mapping. The second part will focus on interpretation of physical, biological, and cultural features. Same as NRES 460. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: Knowledge of trigonometry (MATH 014 or equivalent) and basic physical geography (GEOG 103 or equivalent).

GEOG 465   Transportation & Sustainability   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Descriptors of transportation systems; transportation as an industrial activity and public good; and transportation and spatial development, including the role of transportation in urban and regional development. Emphasis on the economic, environmental, and social aspects of sustainability as they apply to transportation systems and the activities they enable at local, regional, national and global levels. Field trip required. Same as ESE 465. Additional fees may apply. See Class Schedule. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.
This course satisfies the General Education Criteria for:
Advanced Composition

GEOG 466   Environmental Policy   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Examination of the geographical and political aspects of human-environmental relations; focusing on how environmental problems are defined, negotiated, and addressed through policy formulation. Specific approaches to environmental policy will be considered at different geographical scales. Same as ESE 466. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: One course in Geography or Political Science or consent of instructor.

GEOG 468   Biological Modeling   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Interdisciplinary modeling course for students interested in dynamic system modeling of living processes; each student will build a model by the end of the course. No special mathematical background required. Same as ANSC 449, CPSC 448, and IB 491. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: IB 444 or equivalent, depending on curriculum.

GEOG 471   Recent Trends in Geog Thought   credit: 4 Hours.

Examination of recent trends in human and physical geography. Themes include empiricism, logical positivism, regionalism, Marxism, realism, phenomenology, and post-modernism as applied to geographic research. Emerging geographic literature is explored to identify the latest conceptual developments. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 473   Digital Cartography & Map Design   credit: 4 Hours.

Instruction and practice in the basic techniques of map making followed by a consideration of problems involved in the construction of maps for presentation in a reproduced form (i.e., printed, photographed); the selection of proper source materials for the base and body of the map, the compilation and correlation of these materials, and methods of mechanical and photographic reproduction. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 476   Applied GIS to Environ Studies   credit: 3 Hours.

Demonstrates how geographic information systems (GIS) have become a major technology ubiquitously applied to solve important problems encountered in geospatial and environmental applications. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 103 or GEOG 104, consent of instructor.

GEOG 477   Introduction to Remote Sensing   credit: 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of energy-matter interaction mechanisms, and the manifestation of reflected and emitted radiation on photographs and images; introduces characteristics of aerial films and filters, electro-optical scanners, and digital processing; and emphasizes applications in environmental problems. Same as NRES 477. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 280 (beginning statistics) or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 478   Techniques of Remote Sensing   credit: 4 Hours.

Optical and digital information processing of imagery acquired from aircraft and satellite remote sensing platforms; includes systems design, mensuration theory, photographic enhancement techniques, and automatic digital classification for all of the standard sensor systems; and laboratory focusing on the design and implementation of information processing techniques with application limited to a survey of uses. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 477 or equivalent.

GEOG 479   Advanced Topics in GIS   credit: 3 Hours.

Introduces advanced concepts in Geographic Information Science. Course topics may vary. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. May be repeated, if topics vary, in separate terms to a maximum of 9 hours, but not more than 6 hours in any one term. Prerequisite: GEOG 379 or equivalent.

GEOG 480   Principles of GIS   credit: 3 Hours.

Focuses on Geographic Information Science (GIScience) principles that underlie the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software and its intelligent use. Helps students adapt to rapidly changing geospatial technologies. Knowledge gained in this course will be general and, thus, not be limited to any specific software product that may be revised in the future. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 379 and GEOG 380 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 483   Urban Geography   credit: 3 Hours.

Broad background of theories, concepts, and methods of research for understanding how and why our cities have reached their current status. Focus on examining the internal structure of the North American city, including analysis of the commercial, industrial, and residential sectors of the urban environment. Particular emphasis is placed on the range of urban theories developed to explain both urban structure and contemporary urban ills. 3 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours.

GEOG 484   Cities, Crime, and Space   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Focusing on US cities, this theory-intensive course surveys traditional and critical perspectives on relations between crime, space, and place. We will explore this interplay within broader contexts of industrial and post-industrial urbanization, concentrating on dynamics including governances, economic processes, and social transformations. Emphasis will be placed on the extent to which these interwoven processes generate, classify, organize, and react to crime across cityscapes. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

GEOG 489   Programming for GIS   credit: 4 Hours.

Introduction to programming to customize and extend the capabilities of geographic information systems. Topics include the principles of programming, advanced function and tools coding, visualization, fundamental spatial data structures, and spatial algorithms. 4 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 379 and GEOG 380 or equivalents, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 491   Research in Geography   credit: 2 Hours.

Detailed examination and discussion of the methods of initiating and executing research projects in human or physical geography (taught in separate sections); requires students to write a research proposal of a quality suitable for a graduate thesis. 2 undergraduate hours. 2 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 471; either graduate standing in geography or senior standing as a geography major and consent of department.

GEOG 495   Advanced Topics in Geography   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Explores special topics not covered in regularly scheduled Geography courses. 3 or 4 undergraduate hours. 3 or 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary in the same term to a maximum of 9 undergraduate hours or 12 graduate hours or in separate terms to a maximum of 12 undergraduate hours or 12 graduate hours.

GEOG 496   Climate & Social Vulnerability   credit: 3 or 4 Hours.

Existing climate variability and likely climate change call for policies to protect vulnerable people who make their livelihoods in a changing environment. Students will explore: 1) causes of climate related stress and disaster; 2) theories of vulnerability and adaptation; 3) practices and policies designed to reduce economic loss, hunger, famine and dislocation in the face of climate trends and events. Focus on multiple policy scales affecting poor and marginal populations, who are disproportionately vulnerable when facing climate stress, drawing on case examples primarily from the developing world. Same as ATMS 446 and SOC 451. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite: GEOG 410, GEOG 466, GEOG 471, GEOG 520, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 520   Political Ecology   credit: 4 Hours.

Political ecology integrates social and biophysical processes in the study of nature-society relations. Examination of the conceptual origins of the field of political ecology and identification of influential bodies of research and promising research directions. Readings focus on recent advances, debates, and the ongoing evolution of political ecology as an integrative approach to Geography and environment-development studies. 4 graduate hours. No professional credit. Prerequisite: One of the following courses, or consent of the instructor: GEOG 410, GEOG 466, SOC 447, HIST 460, or equivalent.

GEOG 570   Advanced Spatial Analysis   credit: 4 Hours.

Advanced techniques of spatial analysis, including spatial autocorrelation, trend surface analysis, grouping and regionalization procedures, and point pattern analysis.

GEOG 575   Alluvial Boundary Layer Dynam   credit: 3 Hours.

Examination of the structure of turbulent boundary layers in rivers and how turbulent flow, sediment transport and channel forms interact over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Explores these interactions through critical analysis of contemporary research in fluvial geomorphology, fluid mechanics, hydraulics and sedimentology. Same as GEOL 575. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

GEOG 594   Seminar in Social Geography   credit: 4 Hours.

Advanced study of a current research topic in social geography. Topic varies from term to term; prepares students for dissertation and thesis research through study of advanced literature and the completion of a research paper. Prerequisite: GEOG 471 or equivalent; graduate coursework in social geography or in one of the social sciences.

GEOG 595   Advanced Studies in Geography   credit: 0 to 8 Hours.

Seminar and directed individual investigation of selected problems or regions; designed to develop ability to conduct independent investigation. Scheduled seminars are detailed in each term's Class Schedule. Approved for both letter and S/U grading. May be repeated.

GEOG 598   Graduate Capstone Project   credit: 4 Hours.

Major individual project that demonstrates a PSM in GIS student's ability to solve an advanced geospatial problem or develop a GIS-based application. Student will work closely with a faculty capstone adviser to determine the project focus and expected outcome(s). 4 graduate hours. No professional credit. Prerequisite: Restricted to second-year PSM in GIS students.

GEOG 599   Thesis Research   credit: 0 to 16 Hours.

Approved for S/U grading only. May be repeated.